Qataris voted on Saturday in the country's first legislative elections to choose two-thirds of its advisory Shura Council.
The vote was for 30 members of the 45-seat body. Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad, the Emir of Qatar, will appoint the remaining 15 members.
The council will have legislative authority and approve general state policies and the budget, but has no say in other areas, such as defence and security.
Preliminary results show that none of the 26 women who stood were elected, out of an initial field of 233 candidates across 30 districts. Withdrawals had earlier thinned that total to 183 candidates seeking election by Saturday.
“Where candidates realised that they had no shot to win a seat, they decided to endorse other candidates,” Andreas Krieg, an associate professor at King's College London, told AFP.
Average turnout was 44.3 per cent in the 29 constituencies that had more than one candidate, state TV reported.
Campaigning took place on social media and at community meetings.
Qataris number about 333,000, but only descendants of those who were citizens in 1930 were eligible to vote or stand.