The politics behind inauguration outfits: What Jill Biden, Kamala Harris and more signified with their fashion choices

As Joe Biden is sworn in as the 46th President of the United States, we take a closer look at the clothes worn by the event's protagonists

WASHINGTON, DC - JANUARY 20: U.S. President-elect Joe Biden and Jill Biden arrive at his Biden's inauguration on the West Front of the U.S. Capitol on January 20, 2021 in Washington, DC. During today's inauguration ceremony Joe Biden becomes the 46th president of the United States.   Win McNamee/Getty Images/AFP
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Joe Biden has been sworn in as the 46th president of the US.

For the ceremony, Biden wore a dark blue Ralph Lauren suit custom made by the American fashion house. Teamed with a matching coat and pale blue tie, it was a look that was designed to speak of measured calm and stability. In choosing such a high-profile American fashion brand, Biden also underscored his message of unity.

Over the course of his long political career, Biden has come to understand the quiet power of a discreet single-breasted suit in either black or classic blue. He has traditionally opted for a classic-cut jacket that flatters but does not distract, worn either with a crisp white shirt and a muted, plain tie, open-necked or even sans jacket and with rolled sleeves for those man-of-the-people moments.

A look at President Joe Biden's style evolution over the years:

Like his former running mate Barack Obama, Biden’s style is simple and elegant. To celebrate Biden's inauguration, his former boss took to social media to post an image of the pair taken during his tenure in the White House. Wearing near identical dark suits, they exude an air of control and command.

Former president Donald Trump, by contrast, left the White House for the last time earlier today wearing one of his trademark boxy suits. Breaking with tradition by boycotting Biden's swearing-in ceremony, Trump boarded Air Force One for the last time in a dark suit and one of his preferred red ties, once again worn too long (a trick Trump apparently thinks makes him look slimmer).

During his time at the White House, despite advocating a “Make America Great Again” policy, Trump preferred to wear suits by the Italian house Brioni.

US President-elect Joe Biden and wife Dr. Jill Biden attend a Covid-19 Memorial at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC, on January 19, 2021 to honor the lives of those lost to Covid-19. (Photo by Patrick T. FALLON / AFP) (Photo by PATRICK T. FALLON/AFP via Getty Images)

First Lady Jill Biden

The new first lady of the US chose to wear an all-blue look from American label Markarian, headed by Alexandra O'Neill, for the inauguration ceremony.

By opting for the blue tweed coat with velvet cuffs, paired with a pearl- and Swarovski crystal-encrusted dress and matching silk face mask by the little-known US label, the new first lady is following in the footsteps of former first lady Michelle Obama, by using her position to champion emerging American talent. Founded in 2017, Markarian lists Priyanka Chopra, Lizzo and Kate Hudson among its clients.

In a similar vein, at a ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool the night before the inauguration, the first lady wore a purple dress and coat that tied at the side with a velvet ribbon by emerging American designer Jonathan Cohen, who is heavily focused on upcycling and sustainability.

See what past first ladies have worn on inauguration day:

For Biden’s victory speech after winning the election in November 2020, Jill Biden cannily wore Oscar de la Renta in a nod to history and the decades that the brand has spent dressing other first ladies, including Michelle Obama, Jackie Kennedy, Hillary Clinton and Nancy Reagan.

Dr Biden has already had time to adjust to life in the spotlight, having spent eight years as the wife of the vice president. During that time, she perfected a polished look that veered from bold prints and bright colours to simple tailoring.

For the inauguration of her husband in 2017, Melania Trump selected a baby blue cashmere ensemble by Ralph Lauren. Slim cut with a mock turtleneck and cropped jacket, it came with matching shoes, gloves and bag, and was a clear nod to the look chosen by Jackie Kennedy for the 1961 inauguration of her husband.

Michelle Obama, meanwhile, championed American designers during her time at the White House. Starting with Jason Wu for the 2009 Inaugural Ball, through Naeem Khan, J Crew and even Target, Obama came full circle, wearing Jason Wu again for her departure.

Vice President Harris

Kamala Harris is sworn in as U.S. Vice President as her spouse Doug Emhoff holds a bible during the inauguration of Joe Biden as the 46th President of the United States on the West Front of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, U.S., January 20, 2021. REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque

Kamala Harris has become the first woman and the first person of colour to hold the office of vice president of the US. For the ceremony, Harris wore a look by emerging black designers Christopher John Rogers and Sergio Hudson, which included a minimalist purple dress and matching coat.

The pair are already earning a reputation for their use of dramatic shapes and vivid colour and and have dressed former first lady Michelle Obama and singer Beyonce.

Harris also wore a string of pearls by Puerto Rican jeweller Wilfredo Rosado, continuing a tradition of wearing pearls for all key events. In her honour, a Facebook group was set up inviting women of all ages to don pearls to mark the inauguration as a symbol of female empowerment.

Harris also favours a fuss-free approach to dressing. She has a firm understanding of how good tailoring can elevate a look, and to celebrate her electoral win in November 2020, she wore an all-white trouser suit by Carolina Herrera that was seen as a nod to the suffragettes. The new vice president also frequently teams skinny-fit jeans and her treasured Converse shoes with a tailored jacket.

Lady Gaga

US singer Lady Gaga (C) arrives to perform the National Anthem as President-elect Joe Biden (L) and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris (R) watch during the 59th Presidential Inauguration on January 20, 2021, at the US Capitol in Washington, DC.  / AFP / POOL / Andrew Harnik

The singer performed the national anthem at the swearing-in ceremony in Schiaparelli Haute Couture by Daniel Roseberry, with a slim-fit navy jacket, and voluminous full-length red skirt. Custom made for the event, Gaga wore the patriotically hued outfit with an oversized gold brooch of a dove carrying an olive branch, the symbol for peace.

"May we all make peace with each other," the singer wrote on Twitter, emphasising the accessory's message.

Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi

epa08953694 Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) is seen prior to the inauguration of Joe Biden as US President in Washington, DC, USA, 20 January 2021. Biden won the 03 November 2020 election to become the 46th President of the United States of America.  EPA/Greg Nash / POOL

During the Trump administration, Pelosi became well known for using her outfits to send a message to the president, such as wearing the exact same outfit for both of his impeachment hearings, echoing the feeling of history repeating itself. To welcome in President Biden, however, the Speaker of the House opted for a classic blue coat, worn with a patterned face mask. Significantly, blue represents loyalty, sincerity, wisdom and stability, and is the designated colour of the Democratic Party.

Former first lady Michelle Obama

epa08953815 Former US President Barack Obama and Former US First Lady Michelle Obama arrive during the inauguration of Joe Biden as US President in Washington, DC, USA, 20 January 2021. Biden won the 03 November 2020 election to become the 46th President of the United States of America.  EPA/SAUL LOEB / POOL

Staying true to her commitment to bring new designers to the fore, the former first lady donned head-to-toe burgundy by Sergio Hudson, one half of the emerging duo that dressed Vice President Harris. Bucking the trend of wearing a dress or skirt, Obama instead went for belted, wide-cut bootleg trousers and turtleneck sweater, under a tailored coat, to help stave off the cold.

Clearly a favourite brand, Obama has worn Hudson designs frequently, including a purple trouser suit she donned for her Becoming book tour.

Jennifer Lopez

Singer Jennifer Lopez arrives to perform "This Land is Your Land" and "America the Beautiful" during the 59th Presidential Inauguration at the US Capitol in Washington DC, on January 20, 2021, as US President-elect Joe Biden, incoming US First Lady Jill Biden, US Vice President-elect Kamala Harris and incoming US Second Gentleman Doug Emhoff watch. / AFP / POOL / Andrew Harnik

For her performance, the singer wore head-to-toe Chanel. With a high-neck blouse, sequinned trousers and ankle-length tweed coat, as well as matching gloves and hat, the singer clearly nodded to the all-white ensembles worn by suffragettes when campaigning for voting equality.

Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton

Former U.S. President Bill Clinton, center, and Hillary Clinton, former U.S. secretary of state, arrive to the 59th presidential inauguration in Washington, D.C., U.S., on Wednesday, Jan. 20, 2021. Biden will propose a broad immigration overhaul on his first day as president, including a shortened pathway to U.S. citizenship for undocumented migrants - a complete reversal from Donald Trump's immigration restrictions and crackdowns, but one that faces major roadblocks in Congress. Photographer: Win McNamee/Getty Images/Bloomberg

The former first lady arrived at the inauguration wearing a deep-purple trouser suit by American label Ralph Lauren, echoing the looks worn by Vice President Harris and Michelle Obama. As a mix of red and blue, the choice was clearly no accident, but rather the blending of the two political parties, and therefore a symbol of unity.