France’s Parliament on Tuesday approved a compromise climate bill that was intended to transform travel, housing and industry.
But environmental activists said the bill did not go fast or far enough to slash the country’s carbon emissions.
Backed by President Emmanuel Macron, the legislation touches on issues central to French culture and economy, including farming, historical buildings and the aviation and automotive industries.
Months of wrangling in both houses of Parliament resulted in diluting several provisions, but the compromise version was easily passed in the Senate and National Assembly.
The final draft included measures to encourage cleaner cars and phase out the most polluting vehicles.
It provided aid for renovating energy-inefficient homes and other buildings, and a ban on domestic flights under two and a half hours on routes that could be travelled by train.
Environmental activists accuse Mr Macron, who has taken a strong global stance on climate issues, of failing to live up to his promises at home.
The head of Greenpeace France, Jean-Francois Julliard, stood under a sign reading “Climate law: botched job” as he addressed a small group of protesters outside the National Assembly before the vote.
“The law is not up to the task,” Mr Julliard said. “It falls short of introducing ecology into the daily lives of the population.
"We will have to continue to disobey, protest and file legal cases.”
A panel of 150 citizens convened by Mr Macron worked for months to produce recommendations for the legislation, but critics say he weakened their proposals.
And conservative and some other politicians amended measures when the bill reached Parliament.
Mr Macron supported an EU plan announced last week to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55 per cent by 2030, compared with 1990 levels.
The protesters gathered on Tuesday said the bill would not allow France to meet the target.
“The law is completely unambitious,” said teacher Aurelie Lilith, 35, a member of Greenpeace France and Extinction Rebellion.
Ms Lilith said protests must continue “to draw attention to what scientists are saying about climate change".
She and others mentioned the floods that killed at least 196 people in Germany and Belgium last week, and the drought and fires in the western US, as consequences of failing to take global warming seriously.