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“We are always underlining the fact that a peaceful settlement has to be found for the Syrian conflict within the framework of UN Security Council Resolution 2254, which is going to be permanent and reliable,” Mr Erdogan said in New York.
“I think if the conflict will be sustained, it will threaten the territorial integrity of Syria and the security and welfare of our region.”
UN Resolution 2254 calls for a political transition in the country through elections.
In recent comments, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu called for the conflict between the government and those who oppose it to be resolve internally, angering many Syrians in his country.
Mr Erdogan also called on the international community to “extend the decision supporting the aid mechanism established in the north-west of Syria”.
The Turkish president said his country has been building 100,000 permanent residences on Syrian soil to help refugees settle there permanently, with an additional 200,000 on the way.
During his address, Mr Erdogan accused Greek authorities of being “tyrants” in their approach to refugees attempting to reach Europe.
“Greece is unfortunately pushing back these refugees in an illegal and tyrannical fashion, turning the Aegean Sea into a graveyard for refugees,” he said.
Turkey hosts about four million Syrian refugees.
Syrians living in Turkey have complained of daily discrimination and worsening living conditions exacerbated by the global economic crisis.