The logo of the UAE's Year of Tolerance 2019 is the indigenous ghaf, a fitting motif for several reasons. Not only is this evergreen tree significant to the heritage of the country, but it also helps to cut carbon emissions and consumes little water. The tree ranges from three to five metres, and its roots can go as deep as 30 metres, so it is able to survive the harsh summer.
Almost every part of the plant serves a purpose: the leaves are used as fodder and the bark has traditionally been used as medicine. Its canopy, meanwhile, creates a microhabitat for birds and insects, and it provides much-needed shade.
Recent global climate negotiations are pushing all countries to take more aggressive steps to reduce their carbon footprint, and expanding the planting of ghafs should be recognised as a significant step – a single ghaf can sequester 34.65 kilograms of CO2 emissions per year.
Most urban areas experience warmer temperatures compared to the outskirts. This is known as urban heat island (UHI) effect, which is mainly caused by the concentration of buildings and other infrastructure in cities. Planting the ghaf tree in urban areas is a sensible solution to counter UHI. But the truth is, the ghaf has not been a popular choice in modern landscaping.
Tatiana Antonelli Abella, founder and managing director of Goumbook, the company behind the Give a Ghaf tree-planting programme, explains two of the challenges faced in rooting the ghaf in public areas. First, if a row of trees needs to be planted along the side of the road or within the median, there needs to be enough space for the roots to grow and the tree to expand. Most roads in the UAE don't have enough space to support this. Second, the aesthetic that is sought after by most landscape architects seems to be one of flowering plants, which are not as water-efficient.
Give a Ghaf is working to redress this situation. Thanks to its efforts, Abu Dhabi and Al Ain have emerged as pioneers in the practice of incorporating ghaf trees. Ajman Municipality planted 2,000 trees on the Sheikh Mohamed Bin Zayed Road intersection. Once the trees are fully grown, this green patch will sit in contrast to the sand dunes along the rest of the highway.
In Dubai, a Dewa building in Healthcare City planted a few ghaf trees along its boundary wall. This is a great use of the buffer space around heavy infrastructural buildings. About 50 ghaf trees also have been planted on the road leading to the entrance of Dubai South. The median is wide enough to support them and will provide soil stability to what is large, dusty ground.
Finally, a lone ghaf tree is being protected as the Expo 2020 site is built around it – a symbol of the green practices the event and the country hope to put in place.
Karishma Asarpota is an urban planner and researcher