The Abu Dhabi Space Debate will take place on December 5 and 6 at the Adnoc Business Centre.
Mr Herzog will attend in person, while Mr Modi will make an address by video link.
The conference will bring together politicians with industry leaders in space, avionics and defence technologies.
Topics of discussion will include the geopolitics of space, the rise of the private sector in space exploration, the weaponisation of space assets, sustainability and the role of space systems in defence and intelligence.
Sarah Al Amiri, Minister of State for Public Education and Advanced Technology, and chairwoman of the UAE Space Agency, said that “at a time of unprecedented global challenges, this platform has a vital role to play in forging consensus, co-operation and development in this vital sector”.
“It has been an important goal for us as we approach the debate that the world’s emerging space nations are represented, as well as legacy players,” said Ms Al Amiri.
“To that end, we are delighted to be joined by representatives of the Romanian, Rwandan, Norwegian, Philippines and Portuguese space agencies, as well as global private sector pioneers.
“Some of the most exciting developments in the sector are now coming from these younger players and they are driving the expansion in global demand for access to space.”
Speakers will include strategists such as Dr George Friedman, founder of online publication Geopolitical Futures, and Dr Robin Geiss, director of the UN Institute for Disarmament Research.
There will be representatives from more than 30 countries, including Saudi Arabia, the US, India, the UK, Korea, France and Japan.
The private sector will also have a heavy participation, including Airbus, Northrop Grumman, Thales and Amazon.