Russia and Iran, both under western sanctions which they cast as unjustified, are forging closer ties in order to support their economies.
Mr Novak, who is in charge of energy diplomacy, met Iranian Oil Minister Javad Owji and also visited a number of oil and gas equipment manufacturers and discussed prospects for working together in the fuel, energy and transport sectors, the Russian government said.
"The oil and gas industry is a backbone for the economies of our countries. Strengthening bilateral co-operation in this area will undoubtedly increase the economic sustainability of Russia and Iran," Mr Novak said.
The two sides also discussed co-operation on electrical and nuclear energy, and renewable sources, the government said.
Russia started fuel exports to Iran by rail this year for the first time after traditional buyers shunned trade with Moscow, industry sources and export data revealed in April.