The former Parliament building in Sarajevo burns from Serbian tank fire, in September 1992, as seen from a destroyed upper floor of the Holiday Inn, where most journalists were based. Michael Evstafiev / AFP
The former Parliament building in Sarajevo burns from Serbian tank fire, in September 1992, as seen from a destroyed upper floor of the Holiday Inn, where most journalists were based. Michael Evstafie

History of conflict: the war that tore the Balkans apart

The contest for the future of an independent Bosnia unfolded against the backdrop of Yugoslavia’s disintegration in the years following the death of General Tito in 1980 and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Slovenia and Croatia were first to break away in the early 1990s, with the Croatian war leading to a huge refugee crisis.

By 1992, Bosnia with its mix of Serbs, Muslims and Croats sought independence but this was resisted by Serbs elsewhere in the remainder of Yugoslavia who wanted to forge a greater Serbia. The Bosnian War lasted from the spring of 1992 until December 14, 1995. The warring parties were the majority Bosniaks (44 per cent, mainly Bosnian Muslims under Alija Izetbegovic), the Orthodox Serbs (31 per cent, under Radovan Karadzic) and Catholic Croats (17 per cent, effectively under Franjo Tudjman).

At the heart of the war was the five-year siege of Sarajevo, Bosnia’s multicultural capital, by Karadzic’s Army of Republika Srpska, bolstered by forces loyal to the Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic. The army’s commander, General Ratko Mladic, would later be held responsible for the war’s most chilling example of ethnic cleansing: at Srebrenica, where an estimated 8,000 Muslim men and boys were executed as part of a broader effort to expel the Bosniaks from the region.

The war finally ended following the Dayton Peace Agreement, signed in Paris on December 14, 1995, which effectively divided Bosnia into two areas of roughly-equivalent size: one for the Serbs, the other shared by Bosniaks and Croats.

Milosevic and Karadzic were tried by a United Nations war crimes tribunal. Milosevic died before a verdict could be reached, but last year, Karadzic was jailed for 40 years after being found guilty on 10 of 11 counts. A verdict on Mladic is due next year.

Serbia’s union with Montenegro was dissolved in 2006. Both countries are now independent, while in 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia. Yugoslavia has now been wiped from the map of Europe.

Indoor cricket in a nutshell

Indoor Cricket World Cup – Sep 16-20, Insportz, Dubai

16 Indoor cricket matches are 16 overs per side

8 There are eight players per team

9 There have been nine Indoor Cricket World Cups for men. Australia have won every one.

5 Five runs are deducted from the score when a wickets falls

4 Batsmen bat in pairs, facing four overs per partnership

Scoring In indoor cricket, runs are scored by way of both physical and bonus runs. Physical runs are scored by both batsmen completing a run from one crease to the other. Bonus runs are scored when the ball hits a net in different zones, but only when at least one physical run is score.


A Front net, behind the striker and wicketkeeper: 0 runs

B Side nets, between the striker and halfway down the pitch: 1 run

C Side nets between halfway and the bowlers end: 2 runs

D Back net: 4 runs on the bounce, 6 runs on the full


Women’s World Twenty20 Qualifier

Jul 3- 14, in the Netherlands
The top two teams will qualify to play at the World T20 in the West Indies in November

UAE squad
Humaira Tasneem (captain), Chamani Seneviratne, Subha Srinivasan, Neha Sharma, Kavisha Kumari, Judit Cleetus, Chaya Mughal, Roopa Nagraj, Heena Hotchandani, Namita D’Souza, Ishani Senevirathne, Esha Oza, Nisha Ali, Udeni Kuruppuarachchi

The biog

Marital status: Separated with two young daughters

Education: Master's degree from American Univeristy of Cairo

Favourite book: That Is How They Defeat Despair by Salwa Aladian

Favourite Motto: Their happiness is your happiness

Goal: For Nefsy to become his legacy long after he is gon

Company Profile

Company name: Hoopla
Date started: March 2023
Founder: Jacqueline Perrottet
Based: Dubai
Number of staff: 10
Investment stage: Pre-seed
Investment required: $500,000

The five pillars of Islam

1. Fasting

2. Prayer

3. Hajj

4. Shahada

5. Zakat



Where to submit a sample

Volunteers of all ages can submit DNA samples at centres across Abu Dhabi, including: Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre+(Adnec), Biogenix Labs in Masdar City, NMC Royal Hospital in Khalifa City, NMC Royal Medical Centre, Abu Dhabi, NMC Royal Women's Hospital, Bareen International Hospital, Al Towayya in Al Ain, NMC Specialty Hospital, Al Ain

Company Profile

Company name: Namara
Started: June 2022
Founder: Mohammed Alnamara
Based: Dubai
Sector: Microfinance
Current number of staff: 16
Investment stage: Series A
Investors: Family offices

The burning issue

The internal combustion engine is facing a watershed moment – major manufacturer Volvo is to stop producing petroleum-powered vehicles by 2021 and countries in Europe, including the UK, have vowed to ban their sale before 2040. The National takes a look at the story of one of the most successful technologies of the last 100 years and how it has impacted life in the UAE.

Read part three: the age of the electric vehicle begins

Read part two: how climate change drove the race for an alternative 

Read part one: how cars came to the UAE


Saturday (UAE kick-off times)

Watford v Leicester City (3.30pm)

Brighton v Arsenal (6pm)

West Ham v Wolves (8.30pm)

Bournemouth v Crystal Palace (10.45pm)


Newcastle United v Sheffield United (5pm)

Aston Villa v Chelsea (7.15pm)

Everton v Liverpool (10pm)


Manchester City v Burnley (11pm)


Company: Eco Way
Started: December 2023
Founder: Ivan Kroshnyi
Based: Dubai, UAE
Industry: Electric vehicles
Investors: Bootstrapped with undisclosed funding. Looking to raise funds from outside

UAE currency: the story behind the money in your pockets

The Saga Continues

Wu-Tang Clan

(36 Chambers / Entertainment One)

How to help

Send “thenational” to the following numbers or call the hotline on: 0502955999
2289 – Dh10
2252 – Dh 50
6025 – Dh20
6027 – Dh 100
6026 – Dh 200

The specs

Engine: 3.9-litre twin-turbo V8
Power: 620hp from 5,750-7,500rpm
Torque: 760Nm from 3,000-5,750rpm
Transmission: Eight-speed dual-clutch auto
On sale: Now
Price: From Dh1.05 million ($286,000)

Ramez Gab Min El Akher

Creator: Ramez Galal

Starring: Ramez Galal

Streaming on: MBC Shahid

Rating: 2.5/5


Started: 2023
Co-founders: Arto Bendiken and Talal Thabet
Based: Dubai, UAE
Industry: AI
Number of employees: 41
Funding: About $1.7 million
Investors: Self, family and friends