Henry Cuellar, a Democratic US representative from Texas, was carjacked by three armed attackers in Washington on Monday night, his office said.
Mr Cuellar had been parking his vehicle when "three armed assailants" approached him and stole it, his chief of staff Jacob Hochberg said in a statement.
The incident took place in the Navy Yard neighbourhood of Washington, about 1km from the Capitol.
The vehicle was later recovered by police and Mr Cuellar is working with local officers, Mr Hochberg added.
Carjackings in Washington have risen for a fifth straight year. Data from Washington's Metropolitan Police showed there have been more than 750 carjackings so far this year, three quarters of which involved firearms.
Monday's carjacking was the second attack on a member of Congress in Washington this year. Angie Craig, a Democratic representative from Minnesota, was assaulted in her apartment building in February.
Mr Cuellar is serving his 10th term in the US House of Representatives.