The unprecedented temperatures the world saw in September have set 2023 on track to become the warmest year on record, latest data from the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) shows.
September 2023 was the warmest for the month on record globally, with an average surface air temperature of 16.38°C.
This is 0.93°C above the 1991-2020 average for September and 0.5°C above the temperature of the previous warmest, in 2020.
The month was about 1.75°C warmer than the September average for the preindustrial reference period of 1850 to 1900.
The global temperature for January to September 2023 was 0.52°C higher than average, and 0.05°C higher than the equivalent period in the warmest year, 2016.
The global mean temperature for 2023 to date is 1.40°C higher than the pre-industrial average (1850-1900).
Europe had the warmest September on record, at 2.51°C higher than the 1991-2020 average, and 1.1°C higher than 2020, the previous warmest.
Heatwave around the world - in pictures
Antarctic sea ice extent remained at a record low level for the time of year, C3S said. El Nino conditions continued to develop over the equatorial eastern Pacific, it added.
"The unprecedented temperatures for the time of year observed in September, following a record summer, have broken records by an extraordinary amount," said Samantha Burgess, deputy director of C3S.
"This extreme month has pushed 2023 into the dubious honour of first place, on track to be the warmest year and about 1.4°C above preindustrial average temperatures.
"Two months out from Cop28, the sense of urgency for ambitious climate action has never been more critical."
Despite September being the warmest on record, it was also wetter than average in many areas of Europe, including the western Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, northern Britain and Scandinavia.
Southern Brazil and southern Chile also experienced extreme rainfall.