The European plazas where people would usually gather at crowded stalls to partake in hot drinks, gingerbread, sausages and other delicacies are just empty squares.
Christmas markets, a cherished tradition in Germany and neighbouring countries, have joined the long list of annual traditions that have been cancelled or adapted because of the coronavirus pandemic.
November saw many European countries impose lockdowns or tougher restrictions as new virus cases soared. The restrictions are either being retained or only partially eased as Advent begins on Sunday.
Scroll through our gallery above to see how Europe is celebrating Christmas
Nuremberg’s sprawling, bustling Christkindlesmarkt, one of Germany’s best known holiday markets and traditionally a big tourist draw, was called off a month ago. Markets across the country — including in Frankfurt, Dortmund and many in Berlin — have suffered the same fate, with authorities cancelling the events or organisers concluding that it didn’t make sense to push ahead with their plans.
Over the border in France, the roughly 300 stalls of Strasbourg’s popular Christmas market won’t go up this year. And it’s the same story in the Belgian capital, Brussels.
Browse the sliders below to see how Covid has laid waste to Christmas markets across the region.