President Donald Trump admitted on Sunday that weekend shutdown talks led by his vice president would not break the deadlock, as newly empowered House Democrats planned to step up the pressure to reopen the government.
Heading to Camp David for staff meetings, Mr Trump showed no sign of budging on his demand for $5.6 billion for a wall along the US-Mexico border. He said that only he could make a deal with Democratic leaders "in 20 minutes, if they want to".
“If they don’t want to, it’s going to go on for a long time.”
With the partial shutdown in its third week, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi said she intends to begin passing individual bills to reopen agencies in the coming days, starting with the Treasury Department to ensure people receive their tax refunds. That effort is designed to squeeze Senate Republicans, some of whom are growing increasingly anxious about the extended shutdown.
The seemingly intractable budget showdown marks the first clash for Mr Trump and Democrats, who now control the House. It pits Mr Trump’s unpredictable negotiating style against a largely united Democratic front, as many Republicans watch nervously from the sidelines and hundreds of thousands of federal workers go without pay.
After another round of talks led by Vice President Mike Pence with senior congressional aides, Mr Trump tweeted that the session had been “productive”.
But two Democrats familiar with the meeting said the White House had not provided the budget details they had requested, and again declined to re-open government. One of the officials said no additional meeting was scheduled.
Mr Trump said earlier in the day that he was hoping for “some very serious talks come Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday”. While insisting he wanted to make a deal, he also declared he would not give an inch in his fight for funding for a border barrier, saying: “There’s not going to be any bend right here.”
Speaking later in the day, Mr Trump said he had told aides to say that they wanted a steel barrier, rather than the concrete wall he promised during the campaign. He said Democrats “don’t like concrete, so we’ll give them steel”.
The president has already suggested his definition of the wall is flexible, but Democrats have made clear they see a wall as immoral and ineffective and prefer other types of border security funded at already agreed upon levels.
Among the Republicans expressing concerns is Senator Susan Collins, who said Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell should take up bills from the Democratic-led House.
"Let's get those reopened while the negotiations continue," Ms Collins said on NBC's Meet the Press. Democrats criticised Mr McConnell for waiting for Mr Trump's support, but Ms Collins said she was sympathetic to Mr McConnell's opposition to moving legislation without agreement from the president.
Several Republicans pushed the Interior Department to find money to restaff national parks amid growing concerns over upkeep and public safety. And Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, suggested on Sunday that pressure would only mount amid the shutdown, which he said is disrupting Transportation Security Administration operations, home loans and farmers in his state.
“Democrats and now a growing number of Republicans are coming together and saying let’s open up the government and debate border security separately,” Mr Schumer told reporters in New York.
Adding to concerns, federal workers might miss this week's paychecks. Acting chief of staff Mick Mulvaney said on Meet the Press that if the shutdown continues into Tuesday, "then payroll will not go out as originally planned on Friday night".
Mr Trump reaffirmed that he would consider declaring a national emergency to circumvent Congress and spend money as he saw fit. Such a move would seem certain to draw legal challenges.
Incoming House Armed Services Committee Chairman Adam Smith said on ABC's This Week that the executive power has been used to build military facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan but would likely be "wide open" to a court challenge for a border wall.
Speaking on CNN's State of the Union, Intelligence Committee Chairman Adam Schiff called the idea a "non-starter."
“Look, if Harry Truman couldn’t nationalise the steel industry during wartime, this president doesn’t have the power to declare an emergency and build a multi-billion-dollar wall on the border,” said Mr Schiff.
Mr Trump also asserted that he could relate to the plight of the hundreds of thousands of federal workers who are no longer getting paid, although he acknowledged they will have to “make adjustments” to deal with the shutdown shortfall. A day earlier, the president had tweeted that he didn’t care that “most of the workers not getting paid are Democrats”.
Mr Mulvaney, sought to frame Mr Trump's support for a steel barrier as progress in the negotiations, saying that "if he has to give up a concrete wall, replace it with a steel fence in order to do that so that Democrats can say, 'See? He's not building a wall anymore', that should help us move in the right direction."
Mr Trump said he planned to call the heads of American steel companies in hopes of coming up with a new design for the barrier he contends must be built along the southern border. His administration has already spent millions constructing wall prototypes near the border in San Diego.