Castro 'took charge' of Chavez's healthcare

Days before Hugo Chavez is due to be sworn in for a third term, Venezuelans are still in the dark about the health of their ailing president.

CARACAS // "What pain is that?"

With that simple question, the Cuban leader, Fidel Castro, set in motion the discovery of the cancer that has plunged the Venezuelan president, Hugo Chavez, into the fight of his life as his country keeps a suspenseful vigil.

"I couldn't find any way to get out from under Fidel's eagle eyes. 'What's wrong, what pain is that?' And he began questioning me like a father would a child ... And he began calling doctors and [asking] opinions. He took charge," Mr Chavez recalled in July, 2011, a day after he went public with his illness.

Venezuela faced growing uncertainty yesterday as Mr Chavez fought severe complications in Cuba following cancer surgery just four days before he is scheduled to be sworn in for an unprecedented third term in office.

The government said last week that since undergoing surgery last month in Havana, the president had developed a "serious pulmonary infection" that led to a "respiratory insufficiency".

Under the constitution, new elections must be held within 30 days if the president dies or is permanently incapacitated either before he takes office or in the first four years of his six-year term.

After Mr Chavez fell ill, Mr Castro, who the Venezuelan leader regards as his political mentor, soon became his "top doctor", even accompanying him to some of the chemotherapy sessions he underwent in Havana.

The Cuban capital is practically the only place the 58-year-old has received care during the long course of his sickness, despite suggestions by Brazil's former and current presidents, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff, that he be seen at Sao Paulo's famed Hospital Sirio Libanes.

"In Cuba, the government guarantees him two primordial things: security and political management of information," said Ignacio Avalos, a sociologist.

Mr Chavez had arrived in Havana at the end of a trip to Brazil and Ecuador. He was using a cane because of a pain in his left knee, catching Mr Castro's attention and prompting him to ask the fateful question.

After the medical examinations, two emergency surgeries were ordered: one for a pelvic abscess and another to extract a cancerous tumour that Mr Chavez described as "almost the size of a baseball".

Throughout the ordeal, the Venezuelan leader, who has held office since January, 1999, never gave up power. He continued to send his ministers instructions from Cuba, while taking advantage of his convalescence to think and read, including Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra.

In a matter of weeks, Venezuelans saw a radical change in their president: Mr Chavez appeared less frequently in public, his speeches were shorter and he traded the habits of a night owl for a healthier lifestyle marked by morning activities and a diet with added fruit and less coffee.

Additionally, the slogan "Fatherland, Socialism or Death", which for years had been his battle cry, gave way to the optimistic "we will live and we will overcome".

Still, his good humour was not affected, even when he appeared in August 2011 with his face swollen and head shaved as a result of chemotherapy. For many sceptical Venezuelans, it was confirmation that he was indeed sick.

In October 2011, Chavez declared that he was cured, but his health problems resurfaced six months later, when he announced, without providing details, that he had to return to Cuba for surgery to extract another tumour in the same area as the first.

Before leaving, he said he would be back "with more life than ever".

Obliged to submit to five rounds of radiation treatment, Mr Chavez extended his stays in Havana, but remained very active on Twitter, after opening an account on the social media network during his convalescence.

Returning on that occasion to Barinas, his home state in central Venezuela, an emotional Mr Chavez moved his family members during an Easter mass with a wrenching appeal for more time to live.

"I say to God, if what one has lived and experienced has not been sufficient, and that [the illness] was what I needed, then I welcome it. But give me life, even if it be a burning life ... give life because there are still things to do for this people," said Mr Chavez, who wept during the service.

Last year in early June, he declared that he was "free" of cancer, a week before registering his candidacy for another six-year term as president.

After an uncharacteristically subdued campaign for the energetic leader, who gave short speeches and rarely walked - although on one occasion he did dance and sing with his followers - Mr Chavez was re-elected with 55 per cent of the vote, beating opposition candidate Henrique Capriles.

After his victory, however, he admitted he had felt the effects of the illness during the campaign and did "10 per cent of what I would have done without radiation treatment".

"The truth is, I was a boxer with the left hand tied and one leg tied, hopping around on one foot," he said.

After submitting to new tests in Cuba, Mr Chavez announced a new recurrence of cancer on December 8 - as well as the need for yet another round of surgery on the island.

Signalling the seriousness of the situation, he named vice president Nicolas Maduro as his political successor in the event he became incapacitated by illness.

After the latest surgery, Chavez suffered a "severe pulmonary infection", the government said, raising questions about his fate.

He has not appeared in public nor in photographs since the procedure, keeping his country, which was awaiting his inauguration on January 10, in suspense.