A trekker walks through the desiccated, spare landscape of Mustang, Nepal. Getty Images
A trekker walks through the desiccated, spare landscape of Mustang, Nepal. Getty Images

Taking the Lo road in Mustang, Nepal

Tired of being taken for a stranger in my own land, for Nepalis rarely walk for pleasure, I don a baseball cap instead of the usual wide-rimmed, string-under-the-chin affair. But within hours of flying in to Mustang District’s nondescript headquarters of Jomsom (altitude: 2,800 metres), the Kali Gandaki Valley’s notorious wind devils snatch my cap off my head and fling it down to the river. We scamper behind a rock for shelter and survey the medieval town of Kagbeni and its hulking monastery, just behind us.

Ahead, the Kali Gandaki glints dully in the sun, grey serpents winding sluggishly across a vast expanse of sand. A trail hugs the ochre cliffs rising above the valley floor, disappearing into the distance. This was the road to Lo Manthang, the walled city of Mustang in north-west Nepal. Once forbidden to outsiders, and plagued by political instability after the Chinese occupation of Tibet, Lo Manthang is now welcoming tourists (US$500 [Dh1,837] for a 10-day permit). In 2013, it was chosen as a top 10 travel destination by the Lonely Planet, which noted that the road is set to change things fast. Visitors have the option of a two-leg Jeep ride along the 75-kilometre trail or a truck that pierces a gorge that is infamous for falling rocks. My partner and I had decided to attend May’s Tiji Festival (which starts this month on May 25) in Lo the hard way: we’d walk in the tracks of the yak caravans that once traversed this famous trans-Himalayan trade route. And now I’d have to do it bareheaded. I resign myself to a skinning in the thinning air, 10,000 feet above sea level.

It’s hard to believe that this valley was once at the bottom of the Tethys Sea. In this high-altitude, wind-scoured desert of crumbling rocks, nothing seems farther than the ocean. Yet the evidence is everywhere. Colossal slabs of sedimentary rock folded over each other tell of the collision 50 million years ago between the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan Plateau that pushed the Himalayas nine kilometres into the sky. Pilgrims comb the riverbed for shaligrams, the black, ribbed fossils of sea-dwelling ammonites prized as symbols of the Hindu god Vishnu. And though there is scant flora and fauna here, the landscape is a geologist’s dream. Take the late Nepalese geologist and politician Harka Gurung’s description: “The track north of Kagbeni traversed across a gravel terrace of black shales, dark sandstones and red quartzites ... the pebbles and sands on the river bed were of dark lacustrine shale, black slate, grey and green sandstones.” You don’t have to be a scientist to see the rainbow in the rocks.

Accustomed to Nepal’s verdant middle hills, I feel like an explorer on an alien planet. As inhospitable as it seems, however, this vast vista of desiccation is punctuated every few hours by sudden green oases of lush wheat and barley, churning like waves in the wind, heralding the flat-roofed huddles of villages. Chorten (Tibetan for stupa) shrines and monasteries, daubed an ashy slate, chalk and ochre that mirror the landscape, mark these regions as Buddhist. And though depopulated by emigration, these settlements provide welcome relief from the wind, which around noon begins to howl down the Kali Gandaki Valley like something possessed. We end a dusty day at Chuksang (2,950 metres). After a hot shower, we settle down for an excellent meal of rice, curried vegetables and lentils in front of a huge glass window framing the sheer cliff opposite us, composed of an impressive battery of deeply fluted columns the colour of a sunset.

The Jeep track ends here, and we continue walking along a narrow, vertiginous trail to Samar (3,290 metres). We take the right fork to Chungsi Cave, which sets us on a course of canyons no less extraordinary than the one that looms over the Colorado River. But after the underwhelming cave, it’s a long, cold haul to Syangboche (3,650 metres). Here we greet the sight of a Jeep with relief: exhaustion and the uncertainty of our hotel booking in Lo convince us to cut out a day’s walk by hitching a ride to the town of Tsarang.

This first encounter threatens to derail the ideal of trekking in Mustang’s open spaces. Being confined to the metal cabin behind the seats is bad enough. But when the dust and the smell of diesel and humans are added to the sight of a woman vomiting into a plastic bag, I follow my fellow travellers onto the roof with alacrity. Once more delivered unto the landscape (and holding tight), I’m ­exhilarated.

We pass the pretty village of Geling (3,440 metres), then drive along the longest mani wall in Nepal – a stone construction inlaid with slabs of rock engraved with the Buddhist chant Om Mani Padme Hum (“Praise be the jewel in the lotus”). Set in that dramatic landscape, you could well believe what the French explorer/author Michel Peissel was told in 1964, that the wall “represented the intestines of a demon that had been killed many years ago by the saint Urgyen Rinpoche”.

We rattle into Tsarang (3,560 metres), where the landscape is even sparer. The bleached bones of the canyons and ancient moraines make one wonder just what business people had to be settling here. But business must have been good at some point. Tsarang’s huge monastery and half-ruined, five-storey palace, and the sheer size of the brilliantly coloured chortens that mark this quiet town of neat irrigation canals, speak of past grandeur.

There’s no question about how we want to arrive in Lo – on foot. It’s a long crawl, broken only by a weather-beaten goat herder, a huge chorten, meditation caves sunk in the cliffs and, finally, the thrilling sight of Lo horsemen galloping past us. As the day and our reserves of energy fade, we arrive at the Lo pass (3,950 metres) to the view of Manthang, the “plain of aspiration” leading to Tibet, and stop in our tracks. In the midst of a vast, desolate plain, ringed by the rounded snow cones of mountains, is the walled city of Lo (3,800 metres), a compact fortress of habitation. We walk around the forbidding, 20-foot fortifications and past an avenue of modern lodges to find the huge wooden gates. We’re lucky to secure (very basic) lodging within the old city.

We spend much of the evening and the next morning wandering the medieval, gloomy alleys between Lo’s 150-odd whitewashed mud and stone houses and the long, red-daubed walls of its four monasteries. We’re far from the only tourists there, but the locals regard us with a benevolent curiosity. The Loba have been isolated a long time. According to a study of Lo, the kingdom finally emerged in the 15th century as an independent state, after its development as an important Bon and then (Tibetan) Buddhist centre. When Gorkha’s warrior kings unified Nepal in the late 18th century, Lo became a tributary state with a semi-autonomous king.

In Thubchen Monastery, we come across an assembly hall of wooden pillars and beautifully restored murals resounding with the baritone of a praying monk, leading a chorus of his fellows. Shafts of solid light pour in through a skylight as we sit cross-legged in an unarticulated trance, our hearts caught, mesmerised by the monks’ flowing hand gestures. A rattle of cymbals and tenor flutes and bass blasts freeze our spirits. Watched by carved gargoyles in the half-light, I wonder what was the effect on believers?

It’s an appropriate prelude to the three-day Tiji Festival, held annually to purge Lo of its demons. Both believers and non-believers gather in the small square next to the four-storey royal palace. With the crown prince standing in for the octogenarian monarch (who was away in Kathmandu for medical treatment), the rituals begin with the unveiling of a giant thangka painting, unrolled from the top of a building. Monks in elaborate silks and headdresses then perform a long sequence of ritual dances. But most enjoyable are the masked “demons”, whose lurching forays into the crowd are calculated to inspire both terror and laughter.

After we’ve had our fill of the festivities, we saddle up and ride (ineptly) to the caves north of Lo. It’s an atmospheric ride under brilliant blue skies, past the ruins of ancient forts. Our guide regales us with stories of the ghosts that rove across the plains by night. The multilevel caves at Chosar, possibly scraped out as refuges to wait out invaders in centuries past, once more impress on us the astonishing resilience of the Loba. Later that night, I stand in the silence of our rooftop balcony, staring up at the star-speckled sky above the 15th-century city. Indeed it seems, as Peissel put it, that in Mustang “time hangs frozen upon a secret universe”. Despite the change wrought by the road, this place – the looming monolith of the palace, the twin peaks overlooking Lo, the ageless skies – is quite the same then as now, in this empty land away from everyone.

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Starring: Lupita Nyong'o, Joseph Quinn, Djimon Hounsou

Director: Michael Sarnoski

Rating: 4/5

How to register as a donor

1) Organ donors can register on the Hayat app, run by the Ministry of Health and Prevention

2) There are about 11,000 patients in the country in need of organ transplants

3) People must be over 21. Emiratis and residents can register. 

4) The campaign uses the hashtag  #donate_hope

Brief scores:

Juventus 3

Dybala 6', Bonucci 17', Ronaldo 63'

Frosinone 0

Why it pays to compare

A comparison of sending Dh20,000 from the UAE using two different routes at the same time - the first direct from a UAE bank to a bank in Germany, and the second from the same UAE bank via an online platform to Germany - found key differences in cost and speed. The transfers were both initiated on January 30.

Route 1: bank transfer

The UAE bank charged Dh152.25 for the Dh20,000 transfer. On top of that, their exchange rate margin added a difference of around Dh415, compared with the mid-market rate.

Total cost: Dh567.25 - around 2.9 per cent of the total amount

Total received: €4,670.30 

Route 2: online platform

The UAE bank’s charge for sending Dh20,000 to a UK dirham-denominated account was Dh2.10. The exchange rate margin cost was Dh60, plus a Dh12 fee.

Total cost: Dh74.10, around 0.4 per cent of the transaction

Total received: €4,756

The UAE bank transfer was far quicker – around two to three working days, while the online platform took around four to five days, but was considerably cheaper. In the online platform transfer, the funds were also exposed to currency risk during the period it took for them to arrive.

Tips for holiday homeowners

There are several factors for landlords to consider when preparing to establish a holiday home:

  • Revenue potential of the unit: location, view and size
  • Design: furnished or unfurnished. Is the design up to standard, while being catchy at the same time?
  • Business model: will it be managed by a professional operator or directly by the owner, how often does the owner wants to use it for personal reasons?
  • Quality of the operator: guest reviews, customer experience management, application of technology, average utilisation, scope of services rendered

Source: Adam Nowak, managing director of Ultimate Stay Vacation Homes Rental


July 5, 1994: Jeff Bezos founds Cadabra Inc, which would later be renamed to Amazon.com, because his lawyer misheard the name as 'cadaver'. In its earliest days, the bookstore operated out of a rented garage in Bellevue, Washington

July 16, 1995: Amazon formally opens as an online bookseller. Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought becomes the first item sold on Amazon

1997: Amazon goes public at $18 a share, which has grown about 1,000 per cent at present. Its highest closing price was $197.85 on June 27, 2024

1998: Amazon acquires IMDb, its first major acquisition. It also starts selling CDs and DVDs

2000: Amazon Marketplace opens, allowing people to sell items on the website

2002: Amazon forms what would become Amazon Web Services, opening the Amazon.com platform to all developers. The cloud unit would follow in 2006

2003: Amazon turns in an annual profit of $75 million, the first time it ended a year in the black

2005: Amazon Prime is introduced, its first-ever subscription service that offered US customers free two-day shipping for $79 a year

2006: Amazon Unbox is unveiled, the company's video service that would later morph into Amazon Instant Video and, ultimately, Amazon Video

2007: Amazon's first hardware product, the Kindle e-reader, is introduced; the Fire TV and Fire Phone would come in 2014. Grocery service Amazon Fresh is also started

2009: Amazon introduces Amazon Basics, its in-house label for a variety of products

2010: The foundations for Amazon Studios were laid. Its first original streaming content debuted in 2013

2011: The Amazon Appstore for Google's Android is launched. It is still unavailable on Apple's iOS

2014: The Amazon Echo is launched, a speaker that acts as a personal digital assistant powered by Alexa

2017: Amazon acquires Whole Foods for $13.7 billion, its biggest acquisition

2018: Amazon's market cap briefly crosses the $1 trillion mark, making it, at the time, only the third company to achieve that milestone

The burning issue

The internal combustion engine is facing a watershed moment – major manufacturer Volvo is to stop producing petroleum-powered vehicles by 2021 and countries in Europe, including the UK, have vowed to ban their sale before 2040. The National takes a look at the story of one of the most successful technologies of the last 100 years and how it has impacted life in the UAE. 

Read part four: an affection for classic cars lives on

Read part three: the age of the electric vehicle begins

Read part one: how cars came to the UAE


yallacompare profile

Date of launch: 2014

Founder: Jon Richards, founder and chief executive; Samer Chebab, co-founder and chief operating officer, and Jonathan Rawlings, co-founder and chief financial officer

Based: Media City, Dubai 

Sector: Financial services

Size: 120 employees

Investors: 2014: $500,000 in a seed round led by Mulverhill Associates; 2015: $3m in Series A funding led by STC Ventures (managed by Iris Capital), Wamda and Dubai Silicon Oasis Authority; 2019: $8m in Series B funding with the same investors as Series A along with Precinct Partners, Saned and Argo Ventures (the VC arm of multinational insurer Argo Group)

11 cabbie-recommended restaurants and dishes to try in Abu Dhabi

Iqbal Restaurant behind Wendy’s on Hamdan Street for the chicken karahi (Dh14)

Pathemari in Navy Gate for prawn biryani (from Dh12 to Dh35)

Abu Al Nasar near Abu Dhabi Mall, for biryani (from Dh12 to Dh20)

Bonna Annee at Navy Gate for Ethiopian food (the Bonna Annee special costs Dh42 and comes with a mix of six house stews – key wet, minchet abesh, kekel, meser be sega, tibs fir fir and shiro).

Al Habasha in Tanker Mai for Ethiopian food (tibs, a hearty stew with meat, is a popular dish; here it costs Dh36.75 for lamb and beef versions)

Himalayan Restaurant in Mussaffa for Nepalese (the momos and chowmein noodles are best-selling items, and go for between Dh14 and Dh20)

Makalu in Mussaffa for Nepalese (get the chicken curry or chicken fry for Dh11)

Al Shaheen Cafeteria near Guardian Towers for a quick morning bite, especially the egg sandwich in paratha (Dh3.50)

Pinky Food Restaurant in Tanker Mai for tilapia

Tasty Zone for Nepalese-style noodles (Dh15)

Ibrahimi for Pakistani food (a quarter chicken tikka with roti costs Dh16)


Created by: Jesse Armstrong

Stars: Brian Cox, Jeremy Strong, Kieran Culkin, Sarah Snook, Nicholas Braun

Rating: 4/5