He was received at the Grand Mosque by officials from the General Presidency for the Affairs of the Grand Mosque and the Prophet’s Mosque, the Saudi Press Agency reported.
Mr Erdogan is making his first trip to the kingdom in five years as he seeks to restore ties between Turkey and Saudi Arabia. His visit comes as the Muslim world prepares to celebrate Eid Al Fitr at the end of the holy month of Ramadan.
The Turkish president met King Salman and Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman after arriving in Jeddah on Thursday evening. He held closed-door meetings with King Salman and the crown prince at Al Salam palace before attending an official banquet hosted by the Saudi monarch.
“As two brotherly countries with historical, cultural and human ties, we are striving to increase all kinds of political, military and economic relations between us and to start a new era,” Mr Erdogan wrote on Twitter.
He visit during the holy month of Ramadan would "open the doors of a new era with our friend and brother Saudi Arabia", he said.