Nobel Prize for medicine: the full list of winners

No one has yet been awarded it more than once

The Nobel diploma and medal in physiology or medicine. AP
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The Nobel Prize for medicine is awarded to “the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine”.

Alfred Nobel’s vision puts responsibility for deciding the winner on the Karolinska Institutet. Since 1901, there have been 112 prizes awarded — and nine years where no one won — with 224 laureates, 12 of whom were women.

The youngest winner was Canadian Frederick G. Banting, 32, when he won in 1923 “for the discovery of insulin”. American Peyton Rous is the oldest winner, who was 87 when his “discovery of tumour-inducing viruses” was honoured.

No one has yet been awarded the prize for medicine more than once and no one has received it posthumously.


David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian “for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch”.


Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice “for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus”.


William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability”


James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation”


Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young “for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”


Yoshinori Ohsumi “for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”


William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura “for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

Tu Youyou “for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against malaria”


John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”


James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof “for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”


Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”


Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann “for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

Ralph M. Steinman “for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”


Robert G. Edwards “for the development of in vitro fertilisation”


Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak “for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”


Harald zur Hausen” for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier “for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”


Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies “for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”


Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello “for their discovery of RNA interference — gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”


Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren “for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”


Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck “for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organisation of the olfactory system”


Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield “for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”


Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston “for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”


Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse “for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”


Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel “for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”


Günter Blobel “for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localisation in the cell”


Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad “for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”


Stanley B. Prusiner “for his discovery of Prions — a new biological principle of infection”


Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel “for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”


Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus “for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”


Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell “for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”


Richard J. Roberts and Phillip A. Sharp “for their discoveries of split genes”


Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs “for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”


Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann “for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”


Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas “for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”


J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus “for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”


Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings “for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”


Susumu Tonegawa “for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”


Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini “for their discoveries of growth factors”


Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein “for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”


Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein “for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”


Barbara McClintock “for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”


Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane “for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”


Roger W. Sperry “for his discoveries concerning the functional specialisation of the cerebral hemispheres”

David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel “for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”


Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell “for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”


Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield” for the development of computer assisted tomography”


Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith “for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”


Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally “for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

Rosalyn Yalow” for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”


Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek” for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”


David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin” for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”


Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade “for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organisation of the cell”


Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen “for their discoveries concerning organisation and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”


Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter “for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”


Earl W. Sutherland, junior “for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”


Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod “for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”


Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria “for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”


Robert W. Holley, hair Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg “for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”


Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald “for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”


Peyton Rous “for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

Charles Brenton Huggins “for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”


François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod “for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”


Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen “for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”


Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley “for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”


Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins “for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”


Georg von Békésy “for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”


Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Peter Brian Medawar “for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”


Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg “for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”


George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum “for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

Joshua Lederberg “for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organisation of the genetic material of bacteria”


Daniel Bovet “for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”


André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards “for their discoveries concerning heart catheterisation and pathological changes in the circulatory system”


Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell “for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”


John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins “for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”


Hans Adolf Krebs “for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

Fritz Albert Lipmann “for his discovery of coenzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”


Selman Abraham Waksman “for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”


Max Theiler “for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”


Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench “for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”


Walter Rudolf Hess “for his discovery of the functional organisation of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”


Paul Hermann Müller “for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”


Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz “for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

Bernardo Alberto Houssay “for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”


Hermann Joseph Muller “for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”


Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey “for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”


Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser “for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”


Henrik Carl Peter Dam “for his discovery of vitamin K”

Edward Adelbert Doisy “for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Gerhard Domagk “for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”


Corneille Jean François Heymans “for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”


Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt “for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”


Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi “for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”


Hans Spemann “for his discovery of the organiser effect in embryonic development”


George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy “for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”


Thomas Hunt Morgan “for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”


Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian “for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”


Otto Heinrich Warburg “for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”


Karl Landsteiner “for his discovery of human blood groups”


Christiaan Eijkman “for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins “for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”


Charles Jules Henri Nicolle “for his work on typhus”


Julius Wagner-Jauregg “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”


Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger “for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma”


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Willem Einthoven “for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”


Frederick Grant Banting and John James Rickard Macleod “for the discovery of insulin”


Archibald Vivian Hill “for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

Otto Fritz Meyerhof “for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Schack August Steenberg Krogh “for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”


Jules Bordet “for his discoveries relating to immunity”


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Robert Bárány “for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”


Charles Robert Richet “in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”


Alexis Carrel “in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”


Allvar Gullstrand “for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”


Albrecht Kossel “in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”


Emil Theodor Kocher “for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”


Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich “in recognition of their work on immunity”


Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran “in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”


Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal “in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”


Robert Koch “for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”


Ivan Petrovich Pavlov “in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”


Niels Ryberg Finsen “in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”


Ronald Ross “for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”


Emil Adolf von Behring “for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

Updated: September 30, 2022, 7:51 PM