Nobel Prize for medicine: the full list of winners

No one has yet been awarded it more than once

The Nobel diploma and medal in physiology or medicine. AP
Beta V.1.0 - Powered by automated translation

The Nobel Prize for medicine is awarded to “the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine”.

Alfred Nobel’s vision puts responsibility for deciding the winner on the Karolinska Institutet. Since 1901, there have been 112 prizes awarded — and nine years where no one won — with 224 laureates, 12 of whom were women.

The youngest winner was Canadian Frederick G. Banting, 32, when he won in 1923 “for the discovery of insulin”. American Peyton Rous is the oldest winner, who was 87 when his “discovery of tumour-inducing viruses” was honoured.

No one has yet been awarded the prize for medicine more than once and no one has received it posthumously.

2021

David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian “for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch”.

2020

Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice “for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus”.

2019

William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability”

2018

James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation”

2017

Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young “for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

2016

Yoshinori Ohsumi “for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”

2015

William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura “for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

Tu Youyou “for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against malaria”

2014

John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

2013

James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof “for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

2012

Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

2011

Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann “for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

Ralph M. Steinman “for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”

2010

Robert G. Edwards “for the development of in vitro fertilisation”

2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak “for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

2008

Harald zur Hausen” for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier “for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

2007

Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies “for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

2006

Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello “for their discovery of RNA interference — gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

2005

Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren “for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

2004

Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck “for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organisation of the olfactory system”

2003

Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield “for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

2002

Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston “for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

2001

Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse “for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

2000

Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel “for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

1999

Günter Blobel “for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localisation in the cell”

1998

Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad “for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

1997

Stanley B. Prusiner “for his discovery of Prions — a new biological principle of infection”

1996

Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel “for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

1995

Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus “for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

1994

Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell “for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

1993

Richard J. Roberts and Phillip A. Sharp “for their discoveries of split genes”

1992

Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs “for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

1991

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann “for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

1990

Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas “for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

1989

J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus “for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

1988

Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings “for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

1987

Susumu Tonegawa “for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

1986

Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini “for their discoveries of growth factors”

1985

Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein “for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

1984

Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein “for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

1983

Barbara McClintock “for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

1982

Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane “for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

1981

Roger W. Sperry “for his discoveries concerning the functional specialisation of the cerebral hemispheres”

David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel “for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

1980

Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell “for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

1979

Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield” for the development of computer assisted tomography”

1978

Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith “for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

1977

Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally “for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

Rosalyn Yalow” for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”

1976

Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek” for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

1975

David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin” for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

1974

Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade “for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organisation of the cell”

1973

Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen “for their discoveries concerning organisation and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

1972

Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter “for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

1971

Earl W. Sutherland, junior “for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

1970

Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod “for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

1969

Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria “for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

1968

Robert W. Holley, hair Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg “for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

1967

Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald “for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

1966

Peyton Rous “for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

Charles Brenton Huggins “for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

1965

François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod “for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

1964

Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen “for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

1963

Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley “for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

1962

Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins “for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

1961

Georg von Békésy “for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

1960

Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Peter Brian Medawar “for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

1959

Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg “for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

1958

George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum “for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

Joshua Lederberg “for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organisation of the genetic material of bacteria”

1957

Daniel Bovet “for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

1956

André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards “for their discoveries concerning heart catheterisation and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

1955

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell “for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

1954

John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins “for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

1953

Hans Adolf Krebs “for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

Fritz Albert Lipmann “for his discovery of coenzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

1952

Selman Abraham Waksman “for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

1951

Max Theiler “for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

1950

Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench “for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

1949

Walter Rudolf Hess “for his discovery of the functional organisation of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

1948

Paul Hermann Müller “for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

1947

Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz “for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

Bernardo Alberto Houssay “for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”

1946

Hermann Joseph Muller “for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

1945

Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey “for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

1944

Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser “for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

1943

Henrik Carl Peter Dam “for his discovery of vitamin K”

Edward Adelbert Doisy “for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”

1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1939

Gerhard Domagk “for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”

1938

Corneille Jean François Heymans “for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”

1937

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt “for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

1936

Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi “for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

1935

Hans Spemann “for his discovery of the organiser effect in embryonic development”

1934

George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy “for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

1933

Thomas Hunt Morgan “for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”

1932

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian “for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

1931

Otto Heinrich Warburg “for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”

1930

Karl Landsteiner “for his discovery of human blood groups”

1929

Christiaan Eijkman “for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins “for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”

1928

Charles Jules Henri Nicolle “for his work on typhus”

1927

Julius Wagner-Jauregg “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”

1926

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger “for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma”

1925

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1924

Willem Einthoven “for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”

1923

Frederick Grant Banting and John James Rickard Macleod “for the discovery of insulin”

1922

Archibald Vivian Hill “for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

Otto Fritz Meyerhof “for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”

1921

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1920

Schack August Steenberg Krogh “for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”

1919

Jules Bordet “for his discoveries relating to immunity”

1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1914

Robert Bárány “for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”

1913

Charles Robert Richet “in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”

1912

Alexis Carrel “in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”

1911

Allvar Gullstrand “for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”

1910

Albrecht Kossel “in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”

1909

Emil Theodor Kocher “for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”

1908

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich “in recognition of their work on immunity”

1907

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran “in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”

1906

Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal “in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

1905

Robert Koch “for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”

1904

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov “in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”

1903

Niels Ryberg Finsen “in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”

1902

Ronald Ross “for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”

1901

Emil Adolf von Behring “for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

Updated: September 30, 2022, 7:51 PM
EDITOR'S PICKS
NEWSLETTERS
MORE FROM THE NATIONAL