Which countries have made Covid-19 vaccination mandatory?

As nations go back into various degrees of lockdown, this list explains which governments are making inoculation a must

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Governments have been making Covid-19 shots mandatory for health workers and other high-risk groups, prompted by a sharp rise in infections caused by the Delta variant and a slowdown in vaccination rates.

A growing number of countries are also making shots compulsory for public servants and other workers.

Here are some countries' vaccine mandates, listed according to categories of people affected:

All adults

INDONESIA made inoculations mandatory in February, warning that anyone who refused to be vaccinated could be fined or denied social assistance or government services.

MICRONESIA, a small South Pacific island nation, mandated in July that its adult population be inoculated.

TURKMENISTAN has made vaccination compulsory for all residents aged 18 and over.

Government employees, public and private sector workers

CANADA in October said it would place unvaccinated federal employees on unpaid leave and require Covid-19 shots for air, train and ship passengers. It will also require all its 338 parliamentarians to be fully vaccinated against Covid-19 when they return to work on November 22.

COSTA RICA in September made it mandatory that all state workers be vaccinated.

DENMARK on November 12 proposed to fast-track legislation, which is likely to be passed into law in November, allowing workplaces to mandate a digital "corona pass" for employees.

EGYPT will insist public sector workers either be vaccinated or take a weekly coronavirus test to be allowed to work in government buildings after November 15.

FIJI introduced a "no jab, no job" policy in August, with unvaccinated public servants forced to go on leave and subsequently dismissed if still unvaccinated by November. Employees at private firms could also face fines and companies could be forced to stop operations over vaccine refusals.

HUNGARY said in October it would require employees at state institutions to be vaccinated. It had already made Covid shots mandatory for healthcare workers.

ITALY made Covid-19 health passes mandatory for all workers in October. Workers unable to show proof of vaccination, a negative test or recent recovery from infection would be suspended without pay and face a fine if they try to keep working.

LATVIA on November 12 banned politicians who refuse a Covid-19 vaccine from voting and docked their pay. On November 4 it allowed businesses to fire workers who refuse to either get a vaccine or transfer to remote work.

RUSSIA's capital Moscow ordered all workers with public-facing roles to be vaccinated in June, giving companies a month to ensure at least 60 per cent of staff had received first doses, while Saint Petersburg on November 9 ordered mandatory vaccination for people over 60 and those with chronic illnesses.

SAUDI ARABIA in May made it mandatory that all public and private sector workers wishing to attend a workplace get vaccinated. People must also be vaccinated to enter any government, private or educational establishment.

TUNISIA in October said it required officials, employees and visitors to show a card proving inoculation to access public and private administrations. Unvaccinated employees would be suspended from their job until they are able to present the pass.

TURKEY began demanding negative Covid-19 tests and proof of vaccination for some sectors in August, including teachers and domestic travel employees.

UKRAINE in October made vaccinations compulsory for public sector employees including teachers. The unvaccinated face restrictions on access to restaurants, sports and other public events. On November 11, it proposed expanding the list of occupations for compulsory Covid-19 vaccinations to cover medical personnel and municipal employees.

UNITED STATES President Joe Biden on September 10 ordered all federal workers and contractors to be vaccinated. A mandate that private-sector workers be vaccinated or tested weekly will be enforced from January 4.

Health workers

AUSTRALIA in late June made vaccinations mandatory for high-risk aged care workers and employees in quarantine hotels.

BRITAIN in October made it mandatory for care home staff in England to be vaccinated. Health workers in England will have to be inoculated by April 1.

FRANCE required all healthcare and care home workers, home aids and urgent care technicians to have had at least their first shot by September 15; around 3,000 workers were suspended for failing to comply.

GREECE made vaccinations mandatory for nursing home staff in July and healthcare workers in September.

NEW ZEALAND said in October it would require teachers and workers in the health and disability sectors to be fully vaccinated.

Other workers

Western Australia will require all employees working in mining, oil and gas exploration to have their first dose by December 1 and to be fully vaccinated by January 1.

CHINA's capital Beijing is demanding a vaccine booster shot for key workers on construction sites, including cooks, security guards and cleaning personnel.

PHILIPPINES will require in-office workers and employees in public transport services to get vaccinated against Covid-19 or get tested frequently from December 1, the president's office said on November 12.

KAZAKHSTAN introduced mandatory vaccinations or weekly testing for people working in groups of more than 20.

Entry to public venues

AUSTRIA placed millions of people not fully vaccinated against the coronavirus in lockdown as of November 15. It had already banned the unvaccinated from places including restaurants, hotels, theatres and ski lifts.

BULGARIA as of October 21 made a Covid-19 "health pass" mandatory for people visiting public venues such as cafes, hotels, concert halls, museums and swimming pools.

CZECH REPUBLIC on October 20 said it would require restaurants and clubs to check Covid certificates showing a person's vaccination or testing status.

DENMARK introduced a requirement for a pass when visiting indoor bars, restaurants and other public places.

FRANCE will require those aged 65 and above to present proof of a booster shot from mid-December for health passes that give access to restaurants, trains and planes to remain valid.

LEBANON limited entry to restaurants, cafes, pubs and beaches to people holding vaccine certificates or those who have taken antibody tests.

MOROCCO introduced a vaccine pass on October 21 for access to all government buildings, as well as public spaces such as cafes, restaurants, cinemas, gyms and transport.

NETHERLANDS introduced in September a health pass showing proof of vaccination to go to bars, restaurants, clubs and cultural events.

ROMANIA made health passes mandatory for entry to most public venues from October 25.

Many Russian regions that have emerged from a workplace shutdown now require people to present proof of vaccination or earlier infection when visiting cafes, restaurants or shopping centres.

SWITZERLAND requires people entering bars, restaurants and fitness centres to show a Covid-status certificate providing proof of vaccination, recovery from infection or a negative test result.

Updated: November 19, 2021, 12:13 PM