Bellingham or Mbappe? The world's 50 most valuable footballers in 2023 - in pictures

Foden, Vinicius, Haaland all near the top - but who takes the crown?

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Europe's biggest clubs are planning to flex their muscles in the January transfer window after a thrilling World Cup put some new names in the shop window.

Transfer fees continue to defy economic sense, but which player is actually worth the most?

The CIES Football Observatory, based in Switzerland, has worked it out, and has released their bi-annual list of the top 100 most valuable players – including familiar names such as Vinicius Junior of Real Madrid, Erling Haaland and Phil Foden of Manchester City, and Paris Saint-Germain's French forward Kylian Mbappe.

CIES calculate the values using an algorithm developed by their own research team, and factors in players' ages, length of contract, salaries and other measures to determine a figure for the transfer market from clubs in the five major European leagues. Because of his age, it means there is no place in the top 100 for Argentina superstar Lionel Messi.

The full list is in the gallery above, in reverse order.

Who are the top 10 most valuable players?

All figures according to CIES

1. Jude Bellingham, Borussia Dortmund - €208.2m ($222m).

2. Phil Foden, Manchester City - €200.5m.

3. Kylian Mbappe, PSG - €190.7m.

4. Vinicius Junior, Real Madrid - €190.5m.

5. Erling Haaland, Manchester City - €174.9m.

6. Pedri, Barcelona - €170.2m.

7. Gavi, Barcelona - €147.6m.

8. Jamal Musiala, Bayern Munich - €145.1m.

9. Josko Gvardiol, RB Leipzig - €125.8m.

10. Federico Valverde, Real Madrid - €123.5m.

Updated: January 09, 2023, 9:16 AM