The suspects were planning to launch "terrorist attacks" in Iran but were apprehended before they could carry them out, Press TV said.
Iran's Intelligence Ministry said the Israeli agents entered Iran through Iraq's Kurdistan region, which shares a north-western border with Iran.
The suspects intended to carry out acts of sabotage and terrorist attacks in some sensitive areas, using high-tech equipment and explosives, Press TV said, citing the ministry.
The number of people arrested was unknown and Israel has not commented on Iran's claims.
Iran and Israel are engaged in a shadow war. Tehran blames Israel for attacks on nuclear sites, military sites and assassinations.
In the past few weeks, Iran removed its Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) intelligence chief Hossein Taeb in a move some observers believe to be tied to his failure to prevent Israeli acts of espionage in the country.
Iran has blamed Israel for the killing of IRGC Col Sayyad Khodaei near his home in Tehran on May 22.
Two other senior IRGC members have also died — one in a reported accident and the other in a shooting — this year.
In April, Iran said it had arrested three people linked to Mossad and a month earlier claimed it had foiled an attack on a nuclear plant also planned by suspects linked to Israel.