The Afghan strongmen who tamed Taliban

Sultan Mohammed, the Panjwai police chief with a reputation for brutality, has done what the Americans could not – tame the insurgent haven that had come to be known as the 'blood fountain'.

ZANGIABAD // A captured Taliban rifle dangling at his side, commander Sultan Mohammed swaggers through a bomb-cratered district that was once a hornet’s nest of insurgents, symbolising a rare Afghan military triumph where US forces failed.

Panjwai was one of the centrepieces of US president Barack Obama’s 2009 troop surge ambitiously aimed at crushing the Taliban, but the southern district soon became a poster child of the failed intervention.

Strongmen including Mr Mohammed, the Panjwai police chief with a reputation for brutality, have done what the Americans could not – tame the insurgent haven that had come to be known as the “blood fountain”.

The Taliban are now out of sight in the district of Kandahar province, pomegranate orchards stand on fields once awash with landmines, and poppy farms that boosted militant coffers are just a memory.

“When US forces were here, the Taliban were within one kilometre of their bases. Now they aren’t even within 100 kilometres,” Mr Mohammed said, trailed by armed loyalists.

“We did what American soldiers could not – rid the area of the Taliban.”

To get a full measure of the turnaround, one only needs to compare Panjwai with the turmoil gripping the wider region, which is increasingly drawing Nato troops back into the conflict a year after their combat mission ended.

Neighbouring opium-rich Helmand, Afghanistan’s largest province, is teetering on the brink of collapse.

Overstretched Afghan troops are retreating from volatile southern districts, ceding swathes of key areas to the Taliban.

And conflict-induced displacement is edging towards a new record as the Taliban now control more territory than in any year since 2001.

Panjwai offers a striking contrast: children in schools learning algebra instead of a Taliban curriculum, grape farmers tending their vines even after sundown, and once-wary visitors jaunting around on pheasant-hunting trips.

The transformation of Panjwai, the birthplace of the Taliban movement, defies the common perception that Afghan security forces – plagued by high casualties and desertions – cannot stand alone without Nato backing.

To its advantage, observers say Panjwai is not a messy froth of tribal and economic dynamics. And unlike neighbouring districts gripped by violence, it does not fall on a major drug trafficking route.

“Being a backwater has helped Panjwai achieve detente that has seen many local insurgent fighters return to farming,” said a Kabul-based Western official.

But the turnaround is also widely credited to anti-Taliban strongmen such as General Abdul Raziq, Kandahar’s powerful police chief who controls the province with an iron hand and is accused of running secret torture chambers, an allegation he denies.

“‘His brief to his men is simple: ‘Don’t bring the enemy alive’,” said an official close to Gen Raziq.

Last week the interior ministry said it was probing a graphic video apparently showing Mr Mohammed’s men abusing an alleged suicide bomber.

His hands bound to a police vehicle, the video which went viral shows the man being dragged along the road before a mob turns on him and one officer tries to bite the flesh off his arm.

To the supporters of Gen Raziq and Mr Mohammed, such savagery has made them a bulwark against the stubborn insurgency, more vital than ever as Afghanistan spirals into chaos.

But their success is spawning ever more brutality.

“If I catch a Taliban supporter planting a landmine, I will make him sit on it and blow him up,” said Serajuddin Afghanmal, a police official credited with clearing thousands of mines in Panjwai.

“The Americans thought they could restore security by floating balloons (surveillance blimps) in the air,” said Haji Mohammad, a policeman at an abandoned US base in Panjwai.

“But the insurgents were able to plant mines next to their bases. Whenever they stepped out their armoured cars turned into coffins.”

Analysts warn, however, that Panjwai’s gains are at risk of unravelling as forced eradication of poppy crops creates economic hardship and as violence spills over from neighbouring Helmand.

But, says Mr Mohammed, the battle for Panjwai was won on the day the last US soldiers pulled out.

“With the Americans gone, the Taliban have no moral justification to be here,” he said, clasping an M4 assault rifle snatched from the insurgents, now his personal weapon.

“Foreigners can prop us up with weapons but they don’t belong here. Only Afghans can really win Afghanistan’s war.”

* Agence France-Prese