Israeli police raided Al Aqsa Mosque before dawn on Wednesday and detained 350 people, drawing international condemnation and a furious reaction from Gaza, from where rockets were launched into Israel shortly after.
There were fears before Ramadan of an increase in violence, especially on the eve of the Jewish holiday of Passover at this flashpoint site, which is important to all the communities living in Jerusalem and beyond.
Al Aqsa Mosque compound is a site considered holy by Muslims, Jews and Christians and is a focal point of Israeli-Palestinian tensions.
Why is Al Aqsa Mosque so important?
The compound is known as Al Haram Al Sharif by Muslims and includes Al Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock shrine.
Muslims believe that the Prophet Mohammed travelled from Makkah to Jerusalem and ascended to heaven from the site.
Israel captured East Jerusalem, including the Old City, from Jordan during the Arab-Israeli War of 1967 and annexed the area. Israel later declared a unified Jerusalem to be its capital, but that has not been recognised by the international community.
Violence at Al Aqsa during Ramadan in 2021 was one of the factors leading up to the 11-day war between Israel and extremist groups in Gaza. Further flare-ups since then have been averted with the help of mediation by Egypt.
What led to the 2021 Gaza war?
Palestinians demonstrated for several weeks starting in March 2021 over a potential Israeli court ruling to expel Palestinian families from homes in the Sheikh Jarrah neighbourhood in occupied East Jerusalem.
Israeli settlers in Sheikh Jarrah laid claim to the properties, citing historical and religious grounds.
The Palestinian protests turned into confrontations with Israeli police and far-right Israeli settlers in the area, followed by a spate of arson attacks and stabbings involving Israelis and Palestinians.
Palestinians gathered at Al Aqsa Mosque to protest against what they described as Israel’s attempts to change the demography of East Jerusalem and assert Israeli control over it. Israeli police raided the mosque after Palestinians started throwing stones at them, according to Israeli officials.
The incident left dozens of Palestinians injured. Hamas, which rules Gaza and is considered a terrorist organisation by Israel, the US and several other countries, fired rockets into Israeli cities and Jerusalem.
Israel responded with air strikes on Gaza and an 11-day war erupted.
According to the UN, 261 Palestinians were killed, including 41 women, 67 children, and three people with disabilities, most in Israeli strikes. At least 130 were civilians. More than 2,200 Palestinians were injured.
Ten Israeli citizens and residents were killed by rockets launched by Palestinian armed groups, and 710 others were injured, the UN said.
Why is Jerusalem Day controversial?
Israel's annual celebration of Jerusalem Day, an official holiday that commemorates its capture of the entire city, has added to the tensions.
The event, which starts at sunset on May 18 in 2023, is seen as a provocation by Palestinians, who aspire to have East Jerusalem as the capital of their long-awaited state.
Israeli nationalists regularly stage a flag march that takes them through the Old City's Muslim Quarter by the Damascus Gate. They usually sing patriotic songs, but in the past some marchers have been filmed chanting violent, often racist, anti-Arab slurs.
The march and prayers by Jews at the site have led to Palestinian-Israeli violence in the compound of Al Aqsa Mosque on several occasions.
Al Aqsa Mosque is administered by a waqf — an Islamic trust — that is funded and controlled by Jordan in a security arrangement with Israel after both countries signed a peace treaty in 1994. Under the arrangement, Jews are not allowed to pray in the grounds of Al Aqsa compound but can pray at the nearby Western Wall.
Last year, an Israeli court ruled that Jews could pray at Al Aqsa as long as they did so silently. The verdict was condemned by many Palestinians.
What are the controversial metal detectors at Al Aqsa?
In 2017, Israel introduced new security measures at Al Aqsa compound, including the installation of metal detectors and security cameras.
The move followed two attacks in and around Jerusalem in which five Israelis were killed, including two police officers. The attacks came after the fatal shootings of three Palestinians by Israeli security forces.
The metal detectors sparked more unrest, in which six Palestinians were killed.
In protest, Muslims prayed in front of police barricades in the streets around the Old City. The detectors were removed after weeks of protests, violence and international pressure.
What is the Al Aqsa intifada?
A controversial visit to Al Aqsa Mosque by the late Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon in 2000, when he was leader of the opposition, sparked what became known as the Second Intifada, or uprising. The first one began in 1987 over Israel's occupation of Gaza and the West Bank.
Protests against Sharon's visit ballooned into an armed conflict in which more than 3,000 Palestinians and 1,000 Israelis were killed.