An Israeli defence contractor on Monday unveiled a remote-controlled armed robot it says can patrol battle zones, track infiltrators and open fire.
The unmanned vehicle is the latest addition to the world of drone technology, which is rapidly reshaping the modern battlefield.
Proponents say such semi-autonomous machines allow armies to protect their soldiers, while critics fear this marks another dangerous step towards robots making life-and-death decisions.
The four-wheel-drive robot presented on Monday, named REX MKII, was developed by the state-owned Israel Aerospace Industries.
It is operated by an electronic tablet and can be equipped with two machine guns, cameras and sensors, said Rani Avni, deputy head of the company’s autonomous systems division. The robot can gather intelligence for ground troops, carry injured soldiers and supplies in and out of battle, and strike nearby targets.
It is the most advanced of more than half a dozen unmanned vehicles developed by Aerospace Industries' subsidiary, ELTA Systems, over the past 15 years.
The Israeli military is currently using a smaller but similar vehicle called the Jaguar to patrol the border with the Gaza Strip and help enforce a blockade Israel imposed in 2007, after the tiny territory was taken over by the militant group Hamas.
Gaza is home to 2 million Palestinians who have largely been locked in by the blockade. The border area is the site of frequent protests and occasional attempts by Palestinian militants or desperate labourers to get into Israel.
The Israeli army did not respond when asked for details on how it uses the Jaguar, one of many tools, including drones armed with guided missiles, that have given it vast technological superiority over Hamas
Unmanned ground vehicles are increasingly being used by other armies, including those of the US, Britain and Russia. Their tasks include logistical support, the removal of mines and firing weapons.
While the new vehicle can be controlled manually, many of its functions, including its movement and surveillance system, can also run autonomously.
“With every mission, the device collects more data which it then learns from for future missions,” said Yonni Gedj, an operational expert in the company's robotics division.
Critics have raised concerns that robotic weapons could decide on their own, perhaps erroneously, to shoot targets. The company says such capabilities exist but are not being offered to customers.
“It is possible to make the weapon itself also autonomous, however, it is a decision of the user today,” Mr Avni said. “The maturity of the system or the user is not there yet.”
Bonnie Docherty, a senior researcher from the arms division of Human Rights Watch, said such weapons are worrying because they cannot be trusted to distinguish between combatants and civilians or make proper calls about the harm attacks may do to nearby civilians.
“Machines cannot understand the value of human life, which in essence undermines human dignity and violates human rights laws,” Ms Docherty said. In a 2012 report, Ms Docherty, a lecturer at Harvard Law School, called for fully automated weapons to be banned by international law.
The defence magazine Janes said the development of autonomous ground vehicles has lagged behind autonomous aircraft and boats because moving across land is far more complex than navigating water or air. Unlike in the open ocean, vehicles have to deal with “holes in the road” and know exactly how much force to apply to overcome a physical obstacle, the report said.
The technology in self-driving vehicles also has raised concerns. Electric car manufacturer Tesla, among other companies, has been connected to a series of fatal accidents, including an incident in Arizona in 2018 when a woman was hit by a car driving on autopilot.
The new Israeli vehicle will be on display this week at the Defence and Security System International arms trade show in London.